It was last out of 50 countries surveyed. Both adults and children were not learning to read with meaning, and so were not achieving literacy despite attending classes.
Magufuli is not only relying on repressive means to stay in power. He is also pursuing a programme that revives his popularity. Many still see him as a man of integrity.
The book also highlights Nyerere’s power consolidation through overt and covert means. However, his voluntary retirement from the presidency in 1985 meant that he took the elder statesman mantle.
To the contrary, the countries with most neighbours are bettered by the likes of Rwanda, Mauritius and Ghana in having more open borders, with DRC being the most parochial.
The potential quandary for Kagame is that Rwanda could become his “Hotel California” of which The Eagles famously sung: he can check out, but he can never leave.